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The new earth rest is the terminus of the new exodus from sin. Second, the Sabbath is understood as having a per- manent nature, overarching all generations from Gen 2 to Exod 20 and beyond.

As such, it becomes a symbol of the divine covenant with human beings. Sanctifi- cation is understood as the reflection of the imago Dei in human beings. As such, the blessing of sanctification brings human beings to wholeness.

It inter- connects the themes of rest, redemption, and restoration in the met- anarrative of the great controversy. These three themes are essential for any systematic theology based on the sola-tota-prima Scriptura principle.

As a result, the seventh day interacts with every doctrinal category of Adventist theology. This dynamic interconnectedness is presented in the next section. Sabbath as the Eschatological Interconnect of the Adventist System of Beliefs Reflecting the biblical evidence regarding the teleological nature of the Sabbath, the Adventist theological system considers the Sabbath Davidson, A Love Song for the Sabbath, As such, it is interconnected with all other doctrines.

This part restructures the eschatological overtones presented in the previous one according to the major categories of sys- tematic theology: the doctrines of God, humanity, salvation, church, and the last things. These are wrapped in two sections dealing with the relation between the beginning and the end as reflected by the Sabbath.

In-between, the eschatological relation of the seventh day with each doctrinal category is analyzed. In the context of the fall, the seventh day represents the ideal which is projected into the future as the telos to be reached. It indi- cates the eschatological divine intentions that are encompassed with- in the beginning. As a result, the Sabbath is not just a memorial of creation, but accompanies redemption throughout history, orienting it toward restoration.

From this privileged position, the seventh day contributes to a deeper understanding of God, humanity, salvation, church, and last things. See Richard M. LaRondelle, ed. BDAG, s. The creation theme is developed in this section, while redemption and res- toration are discussed under the next heading.

The creatorship of God allows the biblical discourse about redemption and restoration. The latter is contingent on the divine reality. Human beings need the divine presence to continue to be what they are. Doukhan, Genesis, Gerhard F. Hasel and Michael G. Gerald A. John C. This re- lational aspect is suggested by the companionship time offered through the Sabbath. Fellowship involves harmony between God and human beings.

Likewise, the teleological nature of the seventh day reveals the unitary pur- pose of the three divine beings involved in the creation of the world: Father Rev , Son Col , and the Divine Spirit Gen By creating rest in the space of the seventh day to meet human beings, God presents himself as immanent.

He chooses to dwell not in or through creation but with creation. In cre- ation, God unveils his love. Five characteristics describe this reve- lation of love. He is not impassible: his love appraises human interac- tion Neh Third, God is emotionally involved in restoring the lost meaning of the Sabbath: his love is emotional Mark —6. Fourth, the seventh day, introduced as an unconditional gift, be- comes a condition of maintaining the covenant between God and human beings Exod — This reflects the foreconditional as- pect of divine love.

In addition to the attributes of transcendence, immanence, and divine love, the Bible also reveals divine immutability. The fact that God intervenes throughout biblical history to remind humankind of the Sabbath is significant. The permanence of the seventh-day observance and its important role in the end-time events shows that God is in- volved in a controversy wherein his faithfulness is at stake. These five traits are adapted from Peckham, The Love of God, The existence of the tree of the knowl- edge of good and evil indicates the divine intention of solving the sin problem within the created world.

This means that the Sabbath was designed with a latent potential to counteract the effects of sin. In subsequent history, God acts through the Sabbath to redeem and restore his creation. This theological idea sums up well the interaction between the Sab- bath and the doctrine of God. The creation week is oriented by God toward rest. As a result, the seventh day is inseparable from its escha- tological endowments.

Although transcendent, God meets human beings in his immanence. The purpose of this meeting is to reflect in humanity the relational oneness of God: imago Dei. The creation of the imago Dei theme runs throughout the Bible.

It functions as an ideal of perfection, a background of redemption, and a model for future restoration. As a ruler, God does not act arbitrarily. When confronting evil, he is self-consistent. God cannot but act in accordance with the principles of justice. His purpose is to establish his trustworthy character in heaven v. But trustworthiness is a relational concept in Ps Martin T.

Klingbeil, and Martin G. Klingbeil St. As a reminder of creation, the Sabbath evinces human createdness. In its original state, humanity was imprinted with the image of the Maker. Being a day for the benefit of humanity Mark , the Sabbath is a concrete pe- riod of time to be observed by concrete, temporal human beings.

Therefore, it runs against the prevalent notion of the natural immor- tality of being. Moreover, this hour period creates the context for the divine-human meeting that benefits humanity inwardly. In the prelapsarian state, the human being is oriented toward the pur- pose of the Sabbath: a permanent growth in the divine resemblance.

The second anthropological implication of the Sabbath refers to human oneness. Divine oneness and human one- ness meet on Sabbath to form the divinely intended togetherness. The fact that marriage and Sabbath are closely connected in the creation As Stanley J. Grenz notes, the human relational self is analogous to the divine intra-Trinitarian relationality.

For details, see Stanley J. Aecio E. As the effigy of Creator, the human family reflects love inwardly and out- wardly. The intimate sexual union is more than a physical union. It has spiritual dimensions that become paradigmatic for the spiri- tual divine reality. Only the latter is directly expressed in the creation narrative Gen — Freeness and equalness, which were intrinsic before the fall, demand an extrinsic expression after sin marred humanity.

In the postlapsarian state of humanity, the Sabbath does not lose its meaning. Through its latent potential, it functions as a redeem- ing and restorative agent. With its eschatological flavor, the seventh day connects the past with the future outlining humanity as inclusive familial togetherness.

On this day, employer and employee, professor and student, black and white, rich and poor, all stand on level ground, being reminded that they have equal value before their Creator. The Sabbath does not recognize the artificial barriers mounted by vanity or egotism. All humans have the same rights. As the Sabbath comes weekly for everybody as a gift, it carries the meaning of equal freedom for each human being. Like the tree of the knowledge of good and evil once stood in the midst of Eden pointing to the One that delimits good from evil, the seventh day indicates the same Person who instructs the human beings of their limits.

Instead of avarice, it teaches benev- olence. As God gave himself in human time, the Sabbath teaches human beings to give themselves to others also in time. Doukhan, The Genesis Creation Story, For a theological discussion about the two trees in the Garden, see Sigve K. Andreasen, The Christian Use of Time, Nowadays, human cupidity is fed not only by egoism but also by the theory of evolution. Replacing God with blind forces, evolutionism transforms creation into a commodity that humanity can dispose of.

Its ecological concerns are based on the Genesis narrative and are oriented toward the future restoration of all things. The major elements that circumscribe human identity are em- bodied in the seventh day: createdness, temporality, fellowship, love, freedom, equality, altruism, care, and responsibility.

After the fall, even if the divine resem- blance is partially present, these determinants have to be acquired. To make this possible, God confers Sabbath a redemptive symbolism. By observing it, human beings not only celebrate their salvation but join a resistance movement against the contending masters. Once sin disrupts his creation, God becomes the Redeemer. The OT exodus, together with the new exodus inaugurated through Christ, For a theological evaluation of evolutionism, see Fernando L.

Frank B. Kubo, God Meets Man, In the Exodus narrative, the seventh day offers hints of the theo- logical concept of justification. In the midst of human helplessness, God freely intervenes to provide what is necessary to support life.

His grace precedes any human action. As such, it conveys forgive- ness and the opportunity to be in the right relationship with God again. He aims at an internal transformation, one that enables humanity to trust again in his Maker. Therefore, the Sabbath becomes indicative of conversion from self-dependence to divine-dependence. The Sabbath thus signifies sanctification.

God bestows his holiness on human beings. The restoration of imago Dei leads human beings to become imitatores Dei. The seventh day is the supreme day for honoring God. Blazen considers 1 a right relationship with God and 2 forgiveness as part of the essential meaning of justification. See Ivan T. The imagery of resistance is intentionally chosen. For many Sabbath-keep- ers, this day became the battleground whether in the army, at work, or during wartime.

For the dis- obedient, the Sabbath acts like a barrier. For the obedient, it func- tions as a blessing and sanctification. While Christ intercedes in the heavenly sanctuary, his people on earth are transformed from re- deemed subjects into redeeming agents. The seventh day is identified with restoration. It unites the church both in worship and in mission.

Recently, the Adventist ecclesiology came under scrutiny. For a bibliog- raphical review of the period between —, see Gerald A. It becomes a reality when people come together to meet their Creator. They start to reflect the oneness that characterized the first day of rest. Because unity is inherent in the nature of the Sabbath, once humans start to observe it, they begin to experience the invisible power of the Spirit that draws them together.

As a result, they start worshipping the Lord of the seventh day. The Sabbath becomes a day of communal worship. Resting on Sabbath, the worshippers confess that they accept the Scripture as authoritative for their religious practice. From the indi- vidual level, the seventh day moves to the collective one, indicating conversion to the dependence on God.

As a visible sign of obedience, the Sabbath becomes a trigger for exploring other uncharted doc- trines and positive behaviors.

Once an individual rests on Sabbath, his family is influenced. Once a family observes the day of rest, the entire neighborhood is impacted. Once a neighborhood celebrates the Sabbath, the entire community is transformed. Therefore, it celebrates creation, re- demption, and restoration. Uniting people in worship, the seventh day confesses that there is only one body and a sole head of the Church: Jesus Christ Col As his body, the church collectively imitates his example of service, through various ministries, including healing, teaching, and preaching.

The various spiritual gifts received by men and women are used within the church and through the church for others. As a result, wherever the Sabbatarian church is, social life is protected, nurtured, and oriented toward its Source.

The strong ethical over- tones contained as in a nutshell in the meaning of the Sabbath impact every sphere of life: spiritual and physical, personal, and social. As a day of sanctification, the Sabbath restores and preserves the physical strength. But nobody can wor- ship God exhausted. Having the Sabbath as the goal of the week, human beings batch their energy and effort.

In addition, healthfulness extends to the public square. Here the Sabbath orients ethical behavior toward a restoration of the Edenic ideal. For church members, business relations are characterized by fairness and equity. They are concerned with social justice and civic responsibility while maintaining their faithfulness to God. For a detailed discussion about the intersection between ethics and these spheres, see Miroslav M.

Charles E. The church treats creation not like a demesne or goddess, but as a divinely en- trusted gift. As a result, its members oppose greed and wastefulness, supporting environmental care and protection. Hence, it con- nects the church with the present, through its temporal character, but also with the future given its eschatological character.

End: Sabbath as Loyalty While it is true that the Sabbath cannot be fully proclaimed without being lived, it is also true that it cannot be lived without being proclaimed. Directly alluded in a threefold angelic message Rev —12 , the ecclesiological proclamation of the Sabbath is not a serene mission.

The Bible portraits it as a battle for human allegiance that intensifies Bradford includes here finances, environment, health, time, family, talents and abilities, and citizenship. The Sabbath is a specific period of time; the other is also a specific period, prophetically and histori- cally identified with Sunday.

The day of rest redeems and restores; the sign of unrest enslaves and crushes. One reflects love whereas the other hate. The end-time is understood as the period of time just before the second coming. As such, is an eschatological time. It starts after AD. William H. This time is also associated with judgment. For a detailed study on Sunday as the mark of the beast, see C. The permanence of Sabbath until the second coming suggests this in several ways. God remains trustworthy, in the sense that he does not change the divine law to accommodate sin.

As a result, God perseveres in pursuing the cosmic plan of salvation. The climax of his eternal covenant is the incarnation. Through Christ, the Redeemer of humankind, God manifests his steadfast love. The final eschatological battle be- tween good and evil is fought around the problem of worship.

As with the marital relation, the covenantal relationship symbolized by the Sab- bath is exclusive. One cannot serve God and his adversary. Therefore, each human being must choose whom to worship. The observance of the seventh day becomes the visible litmus test of the end times. It orients human allegiance toward God through its rich sym- bolism. By remembering creation, it invites humanity to worship the Creator.

By celebrating redemption, it entreats human beings to re- ceive their Savior. Even if they go through the darkest hour of history, they have the promise of restoration.

The Beginning in the End With the second coming of Jesus, the redemption signified by the seventh day begins. The passive rest of the dead saints and the per- secuted rest of the living saints is transformed through resurrection and glorification in an effectual everlasting rest. The leap into the unknown. Is there a cure for the fear of change? Vegetarian essentials. The return to nature. Are you really okay?

All Christians Christmas Easter Theology. How does the calming prayer help us manage volcanic emotions? The awakening America needed. Geanina Constantin - December 16, Alina Kartman - December 3, The derisive appellative was given to them by their persecutors, after the name of the man who consolidated the doctrine of the community.

Gheorghe Modoran - November 27, Adrian Neagu - October 26, Hudson Taylor undertook eleven journeys between Europe and China, and his mission prospered. He had one of the most complex and successful visions for evangelism. Alina Kartman - October 2, Some time ago, an older friend, now a parent, was telling me how the way his father treated him in childhood caused him unnecessary suffering. Justin Yang - September 28, He was born in South Korea, but his family moved to America when he was a child, so that his father, who is also a pastor, could continue his education.

One in seven Christians is a victim of persecution worldwide and one in sixteen Christians dies every day for their faith, according to a report published by the Open Doors organization, revealing that Christian persecution has reached the highest level in the last three decades. Adrian Neagu - July 23, Seventh-day Adventists have the deep conviction that Jesus Christ will soon return, and the desire to keep His commandments as they were originally written in the Decalogue.

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View less insurance label. Generic Card. Financial Assistance Resources. At the beginning of Greek medicine, Hippocrates and Galen postulated that disease resulted from a corruption of the humors of the body. This theory asserted that there were four humors: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. Each humor supposedly was associated with a major organ.

When the humors were out of balance, disease developed, so the treatment was to re-establish harmony. This theory was challenged at the end of the 15th century, by Girolamo Fracastoro, who postulated that epidemic diseases could be transmitted by small particles carried either by animate or inanimate objects. This idea was not underpinned by microscopic observations, but nevertheless was entertained by some.

At the end of the 18th century in the United States, there were two theories of disease: imbalance of the humors and tension and relaxation of the solid parts of the body solidism. In practical terms, the latter theory meant that it was necessary to stimulate or reduce nervous activity. Despite the alternative views, the humor theory of disease dominated medical thought until early in the 19th century. During this period of history, articles appeared heralding the second epoch of humorism, in which real substances replaced imaginary ones i.

To illustrate, under the general heading of progress in animal chemistry, the fluids of the body were listed by Johnson in —saliva, tears, nasal mucus, pus scrofulous, venereal, cancerous, and hospital-sore , synovial, sperma virile, etc. However, such ideas were doomed. The influential American, Dr. His activities contributed to the demise of the humor theory, but in turn his views began to wane as American doctors flocked to Europe — and studied at the Paris Clinical School.

There the dominant ideas were to correlate symptoms with pathology and complement the findings with experimentation and statistical analysis. One of the American physicians who went to Europe for training, Elisha Bartlett, condemned Rush for his outlandish ideas. This meant that diseases could be distinguished by anatomic changes as well as by clinical symptoms, bringing greater rigor to diagnosis.

Pasteur, Koch, and others made landmark discoveries soon after, which meant that the ancient theory of humors was dead. Even so, the new wave of discoveries relied on the biological and chemical sciences and on providing answers to the question of how symptoms produced by microbial infection were brought about.

Many of these symptoms were found to be caused by substances produced by microbes; and in that sense, constituted what some have called the modern theory of humorism.

She was speaking of body fluids carrying disease organisms, as already indicated above. The transition to the germ theory of disease was a difficult process for even some prominent scientists and medical people, let alone non-scientists.

The term humor and its derivatives are still used in modern microbiology and medicine. Before commencing this discussion, it must be observed that the above words were written in the context of the Exodus experience. Notice that she quoted a significant scriptural passage Deut. This will make a world of difference to interpretation of her statements. I am not asserting that Ellen White never referred to the modern disease known today as leprosy in any of her writings. A simple reading of Leviticus chapter 13, associated with the Exodus experience, will convince the close reader that the term eprosy was not confined to a single disease.

Medical historians and commentators concur with this conclusion. There is no solid evidence that what is called leprosy today occurred in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, or Persia at the time of the Exodus. The term used in Leviticus does not correspond with modern descriptions of the disease. True leprosy lepromatous form was first inadequately described in the second century A. However, an English translation of the most important Arabic work was not available until The Arabs were the first to recognize clearly the loss of sensation associated with the classical modern disease, which is a defining characteristic.

From early times, the condition known as leprosy was considered contagious or even that some might be carriers. Frequent contact with or living together with a leper was considered prejudicial to infection. The living environment, particularly polluted air and food associated with lepers, was considered a possible vehicle to convey the disease, but a bad diet, poor combinations of food items, or, indeed, certain foods like bear, ass, or swine meat or even the milk of swine were also considered potentially responsible.

The historian Tacitus A. The word scabies was considered the same as leprosy by some, to be associated with it, or actually to be that disease initiated by scabies, which subsequently turned lesions from black to white and then to red.

Readers should be aware, however, that Ellen White did not make this application, as she talked about conditions occurring after eating meat items, not after contact with animals. None of the descriptions given by Bateman line up with the symptoms found with modern leprosy. Plutarch A. What did writers regard as constituting leprous pork?

This food still could be sold in the midth century in France if the tongue was removed and the meat placed in brine. It reveals that measles was regarded by some as a mild form of leprosy that was caused by the parasitic worm. This represented popular opinion in which measles in both pigs and humans was associated with Taenia solium cysticercosis infection.

Cysticercosis was identified as the most common and dangerous parasitic disease found in diseased meat sold to an unsuspecting public. The symptoms that accompany the disease can include the development of visible nodules beneath the skin, which represent the reaction of the body to the offending parasite.

The more serious side effects of the disease are epilepsy and dementia. This means that at least two diseases that can be identified today were regarded at one time as representing leprous pork—pork tapeworm measles and scabies. And it might be observed that more could fall into this category if we still held to the vague definition of leprosy in vogue in many circles at an earlier time. This conceivably could even include the much-talked-about parasite Trichinella granulomatous reactions occur and, in a minority of cases, it can cause a skin rash and undoubtedly some swine-borne bacteria that form small nodules granulomas would qualify too.

The parasite Trichinella was to spring into prominence following its naming , the description of its life cycle by Rudolf Virchow in the late s, and the definitive demonstration by Friedrich von Zenker in Germany that the worms present in pig meat could cause disease in humans. The article was focused on the practice of eating swine and gave great emphasis to the trichina Trichinella ; nothing was said about leprosy.

Her statements present no difficulty when this corresponds with the information and dominant thoughts circulating in her day. The continual use of the health vision material by editors and compilers, while Ellen White was alive, without updating except for minor editorial changes , is noted even up until When new material was published, however, she moved to place the principles revealed in the health vision in the context of advancing science and popular reaction to the information, as evidenced by the extensive treatment of the same subject material in The Ministry of Healing first published in Along these lines, it may be suggested that she already had indicated that her earlier reference to leprosy in relation to pork was to be correctly understood as parasites and other fatal diseases—see below that might be found in pork flesh.

God is the Author of health and happiness, and we can be sharers in the blessings of health if we follow His instructions. Ellen White was calling readers back to the instruction already given in the Bible. Tuberculosis and Scrofula. Before the recognition of the causal agent of tuberculosis, considerable uncertainty existed regarding the relationship among different diseases such as consumption tuberculosis and scrofula.

Some held that both these conditions were synonymous, even in the early part of the 19th century. However, agreement was far from unanimous.

Finally, the link between the diseases was shown experimentally in in well-executed experiments. The disease known in modern terms as tuberculosis consumption was suspected of being contagious by Hippocrates — B. However, it was not experimentally shown to be so until In , the causal organism was found to be a bacterium by the German scientist Robert Koch. He published a full account of his discovery two years later, but the great scientist did not consider bovine tuberculosis of great danger to humans, although he recognized that it was transmissible to them from cattle.

He held this position even until , although other authorities differed, recommending pasteurization of milk Scrofula was regarded by some as a form of tubercular disease by the mids to In making a statement about the transmissible nature of scrofula, White was making a claim that was commonly repeated, particularly in the United States.

For example, Dr. Lugol of St. Louis Hospital held around that transmission was undeniable; in fact, the disease was hereditary in his opinion. And the contagious nature of scrofula was not well supported by experimentation. Opinions expressed were based on observations, which were of sometimes doubtful rigor.

Besides familial predisposition to disease, other predisposing factors, including nutrition, were mentioned. But no particular item of food was singled out as aiding in the development of the disease.

This leaves us in the position of saying that many ideas about scrofula tuberculosis were in vogue in the s. No particular claim of priority can be attributed to Ellen White for her statements. However, it is rather remarkable that her general statements about scrofula turned out to be correct, including the transmission of the disease from mother to infant, which she seemed to imply was even possible in utero.

The primary claim that the use of pork was one avenue through which the disease could be transmitted has been convincingly shown. It now is acknowledged that two species of the tuberculosis bacterium are capable of causing the disease, and both may arise in domestic or wild pigs and be acquired through eating undercooked meat. However, getting it right called for more than human inspiration, especially since the great Robert Koch was a negative force concerning the idea of serious transmission of bovine tuberculosis via milk.

At the London Congress on Tuberculosis in , caution was advised regarding consumption of meat, milk, and butter. Even so, Koch expressed his reservations about the benefits of taking measures against contracting tuberculosis from cattle.

Since he considered bovine tuberculosis only rarely contractible by humans, it follows that pasteurization and other measures would have been considered superfluous by him. By the end of the 19th century, the scientific evidence was pointing to the importance of milk as a vehicle of disease. The movement to ensure a clean milk supply was alive in both America and England in Indeed, legislation was enacted in and in England in an attempt to improve the situation; but very little changed as a result.

No national effort to control effectively the supply of milk took place until after World War I. Added to this pressure was the weight of commercial and political interests.

This meant that in Britain pasteurization did not become obligatory until In the United States there were two competing voices. The positive outcome was that both parties contributed to the hygienic presentation of milk.

The urgency of undertaking constructive reforms was emphasized by the definitive investigations carried out by the highly respected William Hallock Park, of New York University and assistant director of the Research Laboratory of the New York City Department of Health.

He gave graphic descriptions of the unhygienic conditions of dairies and followed this with actual bacterial counts recorded in the milk. As a consequence, New York City looked to providing milk with lower bacterial counts in legislation enacted in In , Chicago passed the first legislation prohibiting raw milk sales.

But the first statewide legislation did not take place until and it took longer for the national sale of raw milk to be forbidden or restricted since They are still relevant today in many parts of the world.

The same fundamentals and principles highlighted under leprosy were re-emphasized under tuberculosis with additional emphasis being given to animal products such as milk.

However, Ellen White also made general reference to the benefits of fresh air and sunlight as being powerful adjuncts to maintaining health. The possibility of airborne transmission of tuberculosis was known early , and recent studies have again shown this to be the case. The survival of the organism is enhanced under cold, dark, and moist conditions and particularly in the absence of sunlight. This means that Ellen White clearly was ahead of the scientific information circulating at the time.

She did not fail to address one of its possible causes meat eating , as will be noted shortly. However, such ideas had been expressed without clear proof previous to Burkholder of Chicago expressed the opinion around the turn of the 19th century that cancer present in meat was probably a source of cancer in humans.

Similar conclusions on transmissibility were being made in the United Kingdom and elsewhere from a survey of the eating habits of individuals. Others thought that the Jews largely avoided the disease because they subscribed to the Mosaic code. However, the proof of a link between food items and cancer acquisition was yet to come. For the lower animal kingdom, it came with the discovery of a tumor agent in mice capable of inducing breast carcinoma. When extracts were prepared from these tumors and fed to mice, they developed tumors in turn, a result also obtained when pups suckled on their diseased mothers.

The question was still unresolved whether similar findings might explain the occurrence of selected human cancers. Of interest is that some animal and human viruses can be transferred within the species concerned and occasionally across genera. For instance, in humans, mother-to-fetus, organ-donor-to-recipient transfer, and surgical-mishap transfer is well known.

And there are other possibilities. Finding cancer associated with specific microorganisms or entities would be the first step in finding a cure. From early times, cancer was linked putatively to tuberculosis bacterial infection because carcinomas occurred more frequently in areas of pulmonary tissue scarring. The theory about bacterial predisposition to cancer was subsequently abandoned for a time. The involvement of viruses in the appearance of cancer took many years to establish.

Although the transmissibility of cervical cancer through sexual contact was suspected by Rigoni-Stern in Italy as early as , it took another years to provide the proof that a virus was involved. It should not be expected that all agents identified will be directly responsible for cancer.

The agents may simply contribute to the development of the disease. The flurry of excitement about bacterial diseases naturally started a serious debate about the cause of cancer. Cancer, much as it is known today, particularly breast cancer, was recognized from ancient times.

However, the most interesting microbial entities viruses—non-living are generally beyond the ability to visualize using a light microscope. The term virus first was used in a rather unpredictable manner.

In fact, the term has been in use from ancient times and has changed its meaning, too. The demonstration that leukemia not recognized as cancer at that time in chickens could be transferred in cell-free filtrates was highlighted by Ellerman and Bang in , and similarly a solid tumor was transmitted from one chicken to another by Peyton Rous in These were landmark events that were not recognized as such at the time because no agent could be seen.

Much later 55 years Rous received the Nobel Prize for the robustness and significance of his experiments. Rous was able to show that a cell-free extract prepared from a solid tumor of a sick chicken was able to induce disease in healthy birds.

To this list of inciting or potential inciting agents have been added bacteria 4 and parasites 3. Even so, only around 20 percent of all cancers have a known infectious etiology. Arguments of the latter kind were put by Thomas Tryon. It was well recognized early, at least in some official circles, that specific diseases were transmitted through meat coming from affected animals.